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What they do?

Sous-chefs perform some or all of the following duties:

A. Supervise activities of specialist chefs, chefs, cooks and other kitchen workers

B. Demonstrate new cooking techniques and new equipment to cooking staff

C. May plan menus and requisition food and kitchen supplies

D. May prepare and cook meals or specialty foods.

Where they find work?

1. Accommodation and food services - 82.0%
2. Health care and social assistance - 4.0%
3. Arts entertainment and recreation - 4.0%
4. Food manufacturing - 2.0%
5. Retail trade - 2.0%

What education do I need?

1. To be a chef, you usually need a high school diploma and cook's trade certification, which is available in all provinces/territories, or equivalent credentials, training, and experience.

2. To be an executive chef, you usually need management training and several years of experience in commercial food preparation, including two years in a supervisory capacity and experience as a sous-chef, specialist chef or chef.

3. To be a sous-chef, specialist chef or chef, you usually need several years' experience in commercial food preparation.

4. Red Seal, an interprovincial trade certification, for cooks is also available to qualified chefs.

5. Chef de cuisine certification, administered by the Canadian Culinary Institute of the Canadian Federation of Chefs and Cooks (CFCC), is available to qualified chefs.

6. Most recent entrants have a community college diploma, and almost 3 in 10 have a trade/vocational certificate.

High School Subject that will help:

1. Math
2. English
3. Cooking

What can you expect to make:

The average hourly wages for Chefs is $13.71/HR, which is close to the average for occupations in the sale and service sector and are below average for all technical, professional, and skilled occupations. These wages grew at an average rate from 2002 to 2004.

Average Wage

Chefs wages

Expected Wage by Age

Chefs Wage By Age


5% of Chefs are unemployed. This rate is close to the average for technical, professional, and skilled occupations.


Chefs Unemployment

Trends in Unemployment

Chefs Trends in Unemployment

Current Job Outlook:

The job outlook for Chefs is considered Average because:

1. Employment grew at an above-average rate.

2. Hourly wages ($13.71) are below the average ($18.07), and the rate of wage growth is close to the average.

3. The unemployment rate (5%) is close to the 2004 average (7%).

Future Job Prospects:

Your job outlook will continue to be Average because:

1. The employment growth rate will likely be close to the average.

2. The retirement rate will likely be below average, and the number of retiring workers should not contribute significantly to job openings.

3. The number of job seekers will likely exceed the number of job openings.

Highest Concetration:

The highest concentrations (per 10,000 people) of Chefs are found in Alberta and British Columbia while the lowest concentrations are in New Brunswick and Newfoundland.

Unionization Rate:

The unionization rate (10%) is below the average (32%) for all occupations.

Useful Experience:

1. Serving

2. Customer service

3. Bussing

Part Time Workers

Chefs Part Time Workers

Part time workers:

11% of Chefs are employed only on a part-time basis. There were 34,000 workers employed in these occupations in 2004, an increase of 51% since 1997.

Age Demographics

Chefs Age Demographics

Age Demographics:

The retirement rate to 2009 will likely be below average because of a tendency to retire at an older-than-average age (65).

Self Employed

Chefs Self Employed

Self Employed:

Roughly 0% of Chefs are self-employed. This is considered Below average for the industry as a whole.

Men vs Women

Chefs Men vs Women

Men vs Women:

26% of the individuals employed as Chefs are women. Compared to other industries, this is Average.