What do Radiologic Technologists and Technicians Do

Radiologic Technologists and Technicians

Radiologic technologists and technicians perform diagnostic imaging examination. Radiologic technicians perform imaging examinations like x rays while technologists use other imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and mammography.

Radiologic technicians, sometimes referred to as radiographers, produce x-ray films (radiographs) of parts of the human body for use in diagnosing medical problems. They prepare patients for radiologic examinations by explaining the procedure, removing jewelry and other articles through which x rays cannot pass, and positioning patients so that the parts of the body can be appropriately radiographed. To prevent unnecessary exposure to radiation, these workers surround the exposed area with radiation protection devices, such as lead shields, or limit the size of the x-ray beam. Radiographers position radiographic equipment at the correct angle and height over the appropriate area of a patient's body. Using instruments similar to a measuring tape they may measure the thickness of the section to be radiographed and set controls on the x-ray machine to produce radiographs of the appropriate density, detail, and contrast.

Radiologic technologists and technicians must follow physicians' orders precisely and conform to regulations concerning the use of radiation to protect themselves, their patients, and their coworkers from unnecessary exposure.

In addition to preparing patients and operating equipment, radiologic technologists and technicians keep patient records and adjust and maintain equipment. They also may prepare work schedules, evaluate purchases of equipment, or manage a radiology department.

Radiologic technologists perform more complex imaging procedures. When performing fluoroscopies, for example, radiologic technologists prepare a solution for the patient to drink, allowing the radiologist (a physician who interprets radiographs) to see soft tissues in the body.

Some radiologic technologists specialize in computed tomography (CT), as CT technologists. CT scans produce a substantial amount of cross-sectional x rays of an area of the body. From those cross-sectional x rays, a three-dimensional image is made. The CT uses ionizing radiation; therefore, it requires the same precautionary measures that are used with x rays.

Radiologic technologists also can specialize in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MR) as MR technologists. MR, like CT, produces multiple cross-sectional images to create a 3-dimensional image. Unlike CT and x rays, MR uses non-ionizing radio frequency to generate image contrast.

Radiologic technologists might also specialize in mammography. Mammographers use low dose x-ray systems to produce images of the breast.

In addition to radiologic technologists, others who conduct diagnostic imaging procedures include cardiovascular technologists and technicians, diagnostic medical sonographers, and nuclear medicine technologists.

Work Environment

Magnetic resonance imaging technologists held about 42,000 jobs in 2020. The largest employers of magnetic resonance imaging technologists were as follows:

  • Hospitals; state, local, and private - 57%
  • Medical and diagnostic laboratories - 18%
  • Offices of physicians - 13%
  • Outpatient care centers - 3%

Radiologic technologists and technicians held about 212,100 jobs in 2020. The largest employers of radiologic technologists and technicians were as follows:

  • Hospitals; state, local, and private - 60%
  • Offices of physicians - 19%
  • Outpatient care centers - 7%
  • Medical and diagnostic laboratories - 7%
  • Federal government, excluding postal service - 3%

Radiologic and MRI technologists are often on their feet for long periods and may need to lift or turn patients, such as to help those who are injured.

Injuries and Illnesses

Like other healthcare workers, radiologic and MRI technologists may be exposed to infectious diseases. In addition, because radiologic technologists work with imaging equipment that uses radiation, they must wear badges that measure radiation levels in the radiation area. Detailed records are kept on their cumulative lifetime dose. Although radiation hazards exist in this occupation, they are minimized by the use of protective lead aprons, gloves, and other shielding devices and by the badges that monitor exposure to radiation.

Work Schedules

Most radiologic and MRI technologists work full time. Because imaging is sometimes needed in emergency situations, some technologists work evenings, weekends, or overnight.

Education & Training Required

Formal training programs in radiography lead to a certificate, an associate degree, or a bachelor's degree. An associate degree is the most prevalent form of educational attainment among radiologic technologists and technicians. Some may receive a certificate. Certificate programs typically last around 21-24 months.

The Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology accredits formal training programs in radiography. The committee accredited 213 programs resulting in a certificate, 397 programs resulting in an associate degree, and 35 resulting in a bachelor’s degree in 2009. The programs provide both classroom and clinical instruction in anatomy and physiology, patient care procedures, radiation physics, radiation protection, principles of imaging, medical terminology, positioning of patients, medical ethics, radiobiology, and pathology.

Students interested in radiologic technology should take high school courses in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology.

Certifications Needed

Federal legislation protects the public from the hazards of unnecessary exposure to medical and dental radiation by ensuring that operators of radiologic equipment are properly trained. However, it is up to each State to require licensure of radiologic technologists. Most States require licensure for practicing radiologic technologists. Licensing requirements vary by State; for specific requirements contact your State’s health board.

Other Skills Required

The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) offers voluntary certification for radiologic technologists. In addition, a number of States use ARRT-administered exams for State licensing purposes. To be eligible for certification, technologists must graduate from an ARRT-approved accredited program and pass an examination. Many employers prefer to hire certified radiologic technologists. In order to maintain an ARRT certification, 24 hours of continuing education must be completed every 2 years.

Radiologic technologists should be sensitive to patients' physical and psychological needs. They must pay attention to detail, follow instructions, and work as part of a team. In addition, operating complicated equipment requires mechanical ability and manual dexterity.

How to Advance

With experience and additional training, staff technologists may become specialists, performing CT scanning, MR, mammography, or bone densitometry. Technologists also may advance, with additional education and certification, to become a radiologist assistant. The ARRT offers specialty certification in many radiologic specialties as well as a credentialing for radiologist assistants.

Experienced technologists also may be promoted to supervisor, chief radiologic technologist, and, ultimately, department administrator or director. Depending on the institution, courses or a master's degree in business or health administration may be necessary for the director's position.

Some technologists progress by specializing in the occupation to become instructors or directors in radiologic technology educational programs; others take jobs as sales representatives or instructors with equipment manufacturers.

Job Outlook

Overall employment of radiologic and MRI technologists is projected to grow 9 percent from 2020 to 2030, about as fast as the average for all occupations.

About 20,800 openings for radiologic and MRI technologists are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.


As the baby-boom population grows older, there may be an increase in medical conditions, such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease, which require imaging as a diagnostic tool. Radiologic and MRI technologists will be needed to take the images.


The median annual wage for magnetic resonance imaging technologists was $77,360 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $59,110, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $100,870.

The median annual wage for radiologic technologists and technicians was $61,370 in May 2021. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $46,850, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $94,880.

In May 2021, the median annual wages for magnetic resonance imaging technologists in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

  • Outpatient care centers - $101,020
  • Medical and diagnostic laboratories - $77,580
  • Offices of physicians - $77,210
  • Hospitals; state, local, and private - $77,030

In May 2021, the median annual wages for radiologic technologists and technicians in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

  • Federal government, excluding postal service - $71,530
  • Outpatient care centers - $67,240
  • Medical and diagnostic laboratories - $62,410
  • Hospitals; state, local, and private - $61,670
  • Offices of physicians - $59,500

Most radiologic and MRI technologists work full time. Because imaging is sometimes needed in emergency situations, some technologists work evenings, weekends, or overnight.

Academic Programs of Interest

Medical Radiologic Technology
A radiologic technologist, or radiographer, is a healthcare professional who uses ionizing radiation to create medical images of the body to help doctors diagnose and treat illness and injury. They work in hospitals, clinics, medical laboratories, nursing homes, and in private industry. The education of a radiologic technologist varies worldwide. Usually their educational qualifications may include a diploma after secondary schooling or a three year... more