Library technicians and assistants help librarians acquire, prepare, and organize materials and assist users in locating the appropriate resources. These workers usually work under the supervision of a librarian, although they sometimes work independently. In small libraries, they handle a range of duties, while those in large libraries usually specialize. The duties of technicians and assistants are expanding and evolving as libraries increasingly use the Internet and other technologies to share information. They are increasingly responsible for daily library operations. Depending on where they work, these workers can have other titles, such as library technical assistant, media aide, library media assistant, library aide, or circulation assistant.
In some libraries, library technicians may have more responsibilities than library assistants. Technicians may be responsible for administering library programs, working with librarians to acquire new materials, and overseeing lower level staff. Assistants may be assigned more clerical duties, like shelving books, checking in returned material and assisting patrons with basic questions and requests.
Library technicians and assistants direct library users to standard references, organize and maintain periodicals, prepare volumes for binding, handle interlibrary loan requests, prepare invoices, perform routine cataloguing and coding of library materials and, retrieve information from computer databases. Some of these workers may supervise other support staff.
At the circulation desk, library technicians and assistants loan and collect books, periodicals, videotapes, and other materials. When an item is borrowed, assistants scan it and the patron’s library card to record the transaction in the library database; they then stamp the due date on the item or print a receipt with the due date. When an item is returned, assistants inspect it for damage and scan it to record its return. Electronic circulation systems automatically generate notices reminding patrons that their materials are overdue, but library assistants may review the record for accuracy before sending out the notice. Library assistants also register new patrons and issue them library cards. They answer patrons’ questions or refer them to a librarian.
The automation of recordkeeping has reduced the amount of clerical work performed by library technicians and assistants. Many libraries now offer self-service registration and circulation areas, where patrons can register for library cards and check out materials themselves. These technologies decrease the time library technicians spend recording and inputting records. At the same time, these systems require more of the technicians’ time to ensure they continue to operate smoothly.
Throughout the library, assistants and technicians sort returned books, periodicals, and other items and put them on their designated shelves, in the appropriate files, or in storage areas. Before reshelving returned materials, they look for any damage and try to make repairs. For example, they may use tape or paste to repair torn pages or book covers and use other specialized processes to repair more valuable materials.
These workers may also locate materials being loaned to a patron or another library. Because nearly all library catalogs are computerized, they must be familiar with computers. They sometimes help patrons with computer searches.
Some library technicians and assistants specialize in helping patrons who have vision problems. Sometimes referred to as braille-and-talking-books clerks, these assistants review the borrower’s list of desired reading materials, and locate those materials or close substitutes from the library collection of large-type or braille volumes and books on tape. They then give or mail the materials to the borrower.
Technicians and assistants also market library services. They participate in and help plan reader advisory programs, used-book sales, and outreach programs. They may also design posters, bulletin boards, or displays to inform patrons of library events and services.
As libraries increasingly use the Internet, virtual libraries, and other electronic resources, the duties of library technicians and assistants are changing. In fact, new technologies allow some of these workers to assume responsibilities which were previously performed only by librarians. They now catalog most new acquisitions and oversee the circulation of all library materials. They often maintain, update, and help customize electronic databases. They also may help to maintain the library's Web site and instruct patrons how to use the library's computers.
Some of these workers operate and maintain audiovisual equipment, such as projectors, tape and CD players, and DVD and videocassette players. They also assist users with microfilm or microfiche readers.
In school libraries, technicians and assistants encourage and teach students to use the library and media center. They also help teachers obtain instructional materials, and they assist students with assignments.
Some work in special libraries maintained by government agencies, corporations, law firms, advertising agencies, museums, professional societies, medical centers, or research laboratories. These technicians conduct literature searches, compile bibliographies, and prepare abstracts, usually on subjects of particular interest to the organization.
To extend library services to more patrons, many libraries operate bookmobiles that are often run by library technicians and assistants. They take bookmobiles—trucks stocked with books—to shopping centers, apartment complexes, schools, nursing homes, and other places. They may operate a bookmobile alone or with other library employees. Those who drive bookmobiles are responsible for answering patrons' questions, receiving and checking out books, collecting fines, maintaining the book collection, shelving materials, and occasionally operating audiovisual equipment to show slides or movies. They keep track of mileage and sometimes are responsible for maintenance of the vehicle and any equipment, such as photocopiers, in it. Many bookmobiles are equipped with personal computers linked to the main library Internet system, allowing patrons access to electronic resources.
Library assistants, clerical held about 88,000 jobs in 2020. The largest employers of library assistants, clerical were as follows:
- Local government, excluding education and hospitals - 62%
- Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private - 13%
- Elementary and secondary schools; local - 10%
- Other information services - 10%
Library technicians held about 93,100 jobs in 2020. The largest employers of library technicians were as follows:
- Local government, excluding education and hospitals - 50%
- Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private - 16%
- Elementary and secondary schools; state, local, and private - 13%
- Junior colleges; state, local, and private - 3%
Library technicians and assistants generally work indoors. They spend much of their time at public service desks or at computer terminals. They may spend time in the library stacks reshelving books, a task that may require bending or stretching to reach the shelves.
Many library technicians and assistants work part time. Library technicians and assistants in school libraries work during school hours. Those in public or college libraries may work weekends, evenings, and some holidays. In special libraries, technicians and assistants typically work during normal business hours but may have to work evenings and weekends.
Education & Training Required
Most libraries prefer to hire technicians who have earned a certificate or associate degree, but some smaller libraries may hire individuals with only a high school diploma.
Many library technicians in public schools must meet the same requirements as teacher assistants. Those in Title 1 schools—schools that receive special funding because of the high percentage of low income students enrolled—must hold an associate or higher degree, have a minimum of 2 years of college, or pass a rigorous State or local exam.
Associate degree and certificate programs for library technicians include courses in liberal arts and subjects related to libraries. Students learn about library organization and operation and how to order, process, catalogue, locate, and circulate library materials and media. They often learn to use library automation systems. Libraries and associations offer continuing education courses to inform technicians of new developments in the field.
Training requirements for library assistants are generally minimal; most libraries prefer to hire workers with a high school diploma or GED, although libraries also hire high school students for these positions. No formal postsecondary training is expected. Some employers hire individuals with experience in other clerical jobs; others train inexperienced workers on the job.
Other Skills Required
Given the rapid spread of automation in libraries, computer skills are a necessity. Knowledge of databases, library automation systems, online library systems, online public access systems, and circulation systems is particularly valuable. Many bookmobile drivers must have a commercial driver's license. Knowledge of databases and other library automation systems is especially useful. These workers should be able to pay close attention to detail, as the proper shelving or storage of materials is essential.
How to Advance
Library technicians and assistants usually advance by assuming added responsibilities. For example, they often start at the circulation desk, checking books in and out. After gaining experience, they may become responsible for storing and verifying information. As they advance, they may become involved in budget and personnel matters. Some advance to supervisory positions and are in charge of the day-to-day operation of their departments or, sometimes, a small library. Those who earn a graduate degree in library sciences can become librarians.
Overall employment of library technicians and assistants is projected to show little or no change from 2020 to 2030.
Despite limited employment growth, about 26,800 openings for library technicians and assistants are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Most of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased demand for library materials. This demand will likely support some growth early in the decade, followed by a decline due to existing factors.
For example, library use has decreased despite community efforts to rebrand libraries for a variety of services and activities. This decrease in use reduces the need for library workers to help patrons find information and operate libraries. Additionally, budget constraints may limit the number of library technicians and assistants in local government and education services.
The median hourly wage for library assistants, clerical was $14.16 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $10.71, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $22.60.
The median hourly wage for library technicians was $17.78 in May 2021. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $11.24, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $28.49.
In May 2021, the median hourly wages for library assistants, clerical in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:
- Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private - $17.92
- Elementary and secondary schools; local - $14.27
- Local government, excluding education and hospitals - $13.97
- Other information services - $13.92
In May 2021, the median hourly wages for library technicians in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:
- Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private - $18.54
- Junior colleges; state, local, and private - $18.22
- Elementary and secondary schools; state, local, and private - $17.78
- Local government, excluding education and hospitals - $17.58
Many library technicians and assistants work part time. Library technicians and assistants in school libraries work during regular school hours. Those in public or college libraries may work weekends, evenings, and some holidays. In corporate libraries, library technicians and assistants work normal business hours but may have to work evenings and weekends.