Businesses and other organizations depend on complex electronic equipment for a variety of functions. Industrial controls automatically monitor and direct production processes on the factory floor. Transmitters and antennae provide communication links for many organizations. Electric power companies use electronic equipment to operate and control generating plants, substations, and monitoring equipment. The Federal Government uses radar and missile control systems to provide for the national defense and to direct commercial air traffic. Such complex pieces of electronic equipment are installed, maintained, and repaired by electrical and electronics installers and repairers.
Installers and repairers, known as field technicians, often travel to factories or other locations to repair equipment. These workers usually have assigned areas in which they perform preventive maintenance on a regular basis. When equipment breaks down, field technicians go to a customer's site to repair the equipment. Bench technicians work in repair shops located in factories and service centers, fixing components that cannot be repaired on the factory floor.
Electrical and electronic equipment are two distinct types of industrial equipment, although a great deal of equipment contains both electrical and electronic components. In general, electrical parts provide the power for the equipment, whereas electronic components control the device.
Some industrial electronic equipment is self-monitoring and alerts repairers to malfunctions. When equipment breaks down, repairers will first check for common causes of trouble, such as loose connections or obviously defective components. If routine checks do not locate the trouble, repairers may refer to schematics and manufacturers' specifications that show connections and provide instructions on how to trace problems. Automated electronic control systems are becoming increasingly complex, making diagnosis more challenging. With these systems, repairers use software programs and testing equipment to diagnose malfunctions. Among their diagnostic tools are multimeters, which measure voltage, current, and resistance, and advanced multimeters, which measure capacitance, inductance, and current gain of transistors. Repairers also use signal generators, which provide test signals, and oscilloscopes, which display signals graphically. Finally, repairers use handtools such as pliers, screwdrivers, soldering irons, and wrenches to replace faulty parts and adjust equipment.
Because repairing components is a complex activity and factories cannot allow production equipment to stand idle, repairers on the factory floor usually remove and replace defective units, such as circuit boards, instead of fixing them. Defective units are discarded or returned to the manufacturer or a specialized shop for repair. Bench technicians at these locations have the training, tools, and parts needed to thoroughly diagnose and repair circuit boards or other complex components. These workers also locate and repair circuit defects, such as poorly soldered joints, blown fuses, or malfunctioning transistors.
Electrical and electronics installers often retrofit older manufacturing equipment with new automated control devices. Older manufacturing machines are frequently in good working order, but are limited by inefficient control systems for which replacement parts are no longer available. As a result, installers sometimes replace old electronic control units with new programming logic controls (PLCs). Setting up and installing a new PLC involves connecting it to different sensors and electrically powered devices (electric motors, switches, and pumps) and writing a computer program to operate the PLC. Electronics installers often coordinate their efforts with those of other workers who are installing and maintaining equipment.
Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment install, adjust, or maintain mobile electronic communication equipment, including sound, sonar, security, navigation, and surveillance systems on trains, watercraft, or other vehicles. Electrical and electronics repairers, powerhouse, substation, and relay inspect, test, maintain, or repair electrical equipment used in generating stations, substations, and in-service relays. These workers may be known as powerhouse electricians, relay technicians, or power transformer repairers. Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers—such as armature winders, generator mechanics, and electric golf cart repairers—specialize in installing, maintaining, and repairing electric motors, wiring, or switches.
Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles have a significantly different job. They install, diagnose, and repair communication, sound, security, and navigation equipment in motor vehicles. Most installation work involves either new alarm or sound systems. New sound systems vary significantly in cost and complexity of installation. For instance, replacing a head unit (radio) with a new CD player is simple, requiring the removal of a few screws and the connection of a few wires. Installing a new sound system with a subwoofer, amplifier, and fuses is far more complicated. The installer builds a custom fiberglass or wood box designed to hold the subwoofer and to fit inside the unique dimensions of the automobile. Installing sound-deadening material, which often is necessary with more powerful speakers, requires an installer to remove many parts of a car (for example, seats, carpeting, or interiors of doors), add sound-absorbing material in empty spaces, and reinstall the interior parts. The installer also runs new speaker and electrical cables. The new system may require additional fuses, a new electrical line to be run from the battery through a newly drilled hole in the firewall into the interior of the vehicle, or a more powerful alternator or battery. Motor vehicle installers and repairers work with an increasingly complex range of electronic equipment, including DVD players, satellite navigation equipment, passive security systems, and active security systems.
Electrical and electronics installers and repairers held about 116,600 jobs in 2020. Employment in the detailed occupations that make up electrical and electronics installers and repairers was distributed as follows:
- Electrical and electronics repairers, commercial and industrial equipment - 56,400
- Electrical and electronics repairers, powerhouse, substation, and relay - 23,100
- Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers - 17,800
- Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles - 10,200
- Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment - 9,100
The largest employers of electrical and electronics installers and repairers were as follows:
- Manufacturing - 19%
- Utilities - 14%
- Repair and maintenance - 11%
- Wholesale trade - 10%
- Federal government, excluding postal service - 9%
Many electrical and electronics installers and repairers work in repair shops or in factories, and some may work outside when they travel to job sites.
Installers and repairers may have to lift heavy equipment and work in awkward positions. They spend most of their day walking, standing, or kneeling.
The majority of electrical and electronics installers and repairers work full time.
Education & Training Required
Knowledge of electrical equipment and electronics is necessary for employment. Employers often prefer applicants with an associate degree from a community college or technical school, although a high school diploma may be sufficient for some jobs. Entry-level repairers may begin by working with experienced technicians who provide technical guidance, and work independently only after developing the necessary skills.
Other Skills Required
Installers and repairers should have good eyesight and color perception to work with the intricate components used in electronic equipment. Field technicians work closely with customers and should have good communication skills and a neat appearance. Employers also may require that field technicians have a driver's license.
How to Advance
Various organizations offer certification. For instance, the Electronics Technicians Association (ETA) offers over 50 certification programs in numerous electronics specialties for varying levels of competence. The International Society of Certified Electronics Technicians also offers certification for several levels of competence, focusing on a broad range of topics, including basic electronics, electronic systems, and appliance service. To become certified, applicants must meet several prerequisites and pass a comprehensive written or online examination. Certification demonstrates a level of competency and can make an applicant more attractive to employers, as well as increase one's opportunities for advancement.
Experienced repairers with advanced training may become specialists or troubleshooters who assist other repairers diagnose difficult problems. Workers with leadership skills may become supervisors of other repairers. Some experienced workers open their own repair shops.
Overall employment of electrical and electronics installers and repairers is projected to grow 2 percent from 2020 to 2030, slower than the average for all occupations.
Despite limited employment growth, about 9,600 openings for electrical and electronics installers and repairers are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Most of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.
All of the projected employment growth in these occupations reflects recovery from the COVID-19 recession that began in 2020, as overall demand for the services provided by these workers is expected to decline. Growth will vary by occupation (see table).
Over the projections decade, improvements in electrical and electronic equipment design and increased use of disposable tool parts are expected to reduce the need for electrical and electronic equipment installers and repairers.
Motor vehicle manufacturers continue to install high-quality sound, security, entertainment, and navigation systems in new vehicles. Reduced demand for installing aftermarket products and for repairing the high-quality systems is expected to limit the need for electrical and electronics installers and repairers.
The median annual wage for electrical and electronics installers and repairers was $61,760 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $37,050, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $100,300.
Median annual wages for electrical and electronics installers and repairers in May 2021 were as follows:
- Electrical and electronics repairers, powerhouse, substation, and relay - $93,420
- Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment - $77,250
- Electrical and electronics repairers, commercial and industrial equipment - $61,730
- Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers - $46,910
- Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles - $40,670
In May 2021, the median annual wages for electrical and electronics installers and repairers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:
- Utilities - $97,480
- Federal government, excluding postal service - $66,710
- Manufacturing - $60,360
- Wholesale trade - $47,860
- Repair and maintenance - $47,830
The majority of electrical and electronics installers and repairers work full time.